|Beitragstitel||Biomechanical analysis of arthroscopic single anchor repair techniques of upper third subscapularis tears|
Upper third tears of the subscapularis tendon can be repaired successfully with a single anchor according to previous literature. The aim of the present study was to compare three single anchor repair techniques regarding fixation strength, footprint coverage and contact pressure in a biomechanical test set-up on human cadaveric shoulders.
Eighteen human cadaveric shoulders were randomized in three groups with respect to the repair technique; group 1: knotted lasso-loop mattress, group 2: knotted mattress and group 3: knotless tape repair. Upper third tears of the subscapularis tendon (Lafosse type 2) were created and repairs were performed with additional contact pressure and area measurement using a pressure mapping system. Cyclic testing was performed by loading the subscapularis from 10 to 100 N for 300 cycles. A position-controlled ramp protocol up to 30 N and 50 N was used to allow for pressure measurements. Finally, specimens were loaded to failure and failure modes were recorded.
The three groups were not significantly different regarding age, gender, bone mineral density at the lesser tuberosity, subscapularis footprint size and defect area created at the upper subscapularis insertion. A significant difference was detected between group 1 (48.6 ±13.8%) and group 2 (25.9 ±5.7%) regarding pressurized footprint coverage (p = 0.028).
Ultimate load to failure was 630.8 ±145.3 N in group 1, 586.9 ±220.7 N in group 2 and 678.2 ±236.5 N in group 3, respectively. Cyclic displacement was similar in all three groups with an average displacement of 1.2 ±0.6 mm. The highest stiffness was found in group 1 with 88 ±30.3, which was not statistically significantly different to group 2 (65 ±27 N/mm) and group 3 (83.9 ±32.9 N/mm).
The most common mode of failure was suture cut-through at the suture-tendon interface (44%). Failures in group 3 were less commonly associated with suture cut-through (33% vs. 50% in group 1 and 2), but no significant differences were found.
All three tested single anchor repair techniques of upper third subscapularis tears were able to provide sufficient biomechanical stability. Knotted lasso-loop mattress and knotless tape repair were superior regarding pressurized footprint coverage compared to a knotted horizontal mattress technique.